Texts used to justify the doctrine that Christians today should ask Jesus for a “baptism in the Holy Spirit” and thus follow the pattern of the first century disciples:
Acts 2; Acts 8:14-17; Acts 10:44-48; Acts19:4-6 and (a passage critical to Pentecostal theology) 1Corinthians 12:13.
Starting with the last – the verse 1Cor.12:13 is traditionally read as “For by one Spirit we were all baptized into one body” by those who support the Pentecostal view (Spirit as baptizer). See the note in the margin of NIV which would translate the verse as, “For we were all baptized in one Spirit into one body...and we were all given the one Spirit to drink.” The NIV reading would have this baptism event referring to the same event as Matthew 3:11; Mark1:8; Luke3:16; John1:33 (with Jesus as the baptizer).
So, what happened at Pentecost, especially in light of John20:22? Evidently those gathered in the upper room on the Day of Pentecost were already believers (if not before Jn.20:22, certainly after). The disciples had not received the new covenant empowering for ministry until Pentecost - 10 days after they last saw Jesus (at His ascension / 40 days after His crucifixion). On the Day of Pentecost, the promise of Jesus, “You shall receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you” (Acts 1:8) was fulfilled. It also fulfilled the prophesy of Joel (as Peter told Act2:16). And this was done as Jesus returned to heaven and exercised His authority (Acts2:33)
This new power for ministry and witness (Eph.4:8,11-13), for victory over sin (Rom.6:11-14)and over Satan (2Cor.10:3-4) for all believers, was part of the new covenant in Christ, was for the building up of the body of Christ, the church ,and was not to be used for individual gratification. It was a mark that salvation was no longer limited to the Jews.
As the gospel began to go out beyond Jerusalem, to Judea, Samaria, and to the ends of the world, the evidence of the new covenant - another Counselor, not only with you but in you - followed the proclamation and acceptance of the gospel.
Samaria Acts 8 – When the Samaritans heard the preaching of Philip, they “believed the good news about the kingdom of God and the name of Jesus Christ.”(Acts8:12) Verses 14-17 would seem to indicate that perhaps God waited to give the new covenant empowering of the Holy Spirit to the Samaritans directly through the hands of the apostles so that it would be evident to all that the Samaritans were not second-class citizens in the kingdom but full members of the church. (thus kind of a Samaritan Pentecost especially significant in including the mixed race)
Cornelius' household Acts 10 – As Peter preached, the people believed and as they believed they received the Holy Spirit. These were Gentiles.
The disciples of John Ephesus Acts 19 – There is no evidence that they had believed in Jesus as savior and risen Lord since they had not even heard that there was a Holy Spirit. It is unlikely that they had heard of Christ's death and resurrection.
Thus there seems to be no New Testament texts which encourage us to seek a second experience after conversion.
Being Filled With the Spirit Ephesians 5:18 (present tense, imperative = be continually being filled...)
This fullness will result in renewed worship, thanksgiving, and obedience. Some contend that if at conversion one is filled with the Spirit then as a full glass of water cannot get any “fuller,” this would be a frustrating and impossible-to-obey command. But real people of God can grow and be able to contain more and more of the Holy Spirit's fullness and power. A balloon would make a better analogy that a glass of water. A balloon which is considered full of air though little air is in it, can expand when more air is blown in and in a sense become “more full.” (Systematic Theology , W. Grudem)